Section 2257 for Retailers and Distributors
Section 2257 for Retailers and Distributors
By J. D. Obenberger,
Attorney at Law
This article was written in 2006 for AVN's print Novelty edition and
its intended audience was brick and mortar retailers and retailers who
ship hard copy. It begins with information about changes in the
regulations that were then recent and about HR4472. Since thet time
that this article was written, the DOJ regulations which specify the
information to be set out in a Disclosure Statement have been further
amended, making it now unnecessary to provide the name of a natural
person who acts as custodian of records; that person may be identified
by title alone; also, the Date of Production no longer needs to be set
out in the Notice, but the affirmative duty of a producer to make a
record of that date remains (and that particular obligation is fairly
complex in works not entirely created on one day, and in regard to
production activity other than actual filming). For the purposes of the
intended readers of this article, that's all that is important to know
regarding the latest batch of amendments. The remaining parts of this
article remain good information. This article obviously is not legal
advice nor is it a substitute from the kind of legal advice you can and
should obtain from an attorney experienced in this area, including this
This article was written in 2006 for AVN's print Novelty edition and its intended audience was brick and mortar retailers and retailers who ship hard copy. It begins with information about changes in the regulations that were then recent and about HR4472. Since thet time that this article was written, the DOJ regulations which specify the information to be set out in a Disclosure Statement have been further amended, making it now unnecessary to provide the name of a natural person who acts as custodian of records; that person may be identified by title alone; also, the Date of Production no longer needs to be set out in the Notice, but the affirmative duty of a producer to make a record of that date remains (and that particular obligation is fairly complex in works not entirely created on one day, and in regard to production activity other than actual filming). For the purposes of the intended readers of this article, that's all that is important to know regarding the latest batch of amendments. The remaining parts of this article remain good information. This article obviously is not legal advice nor is it a substitute from the kind of legal advice you can and should obtain from an attorney experienced in this area, including this firm.
months ago, in late July 2006, the adult trade press reported at great length
concerning the enactment of HR 4472 which expanded federal regulation of
sexually explicit images. More than a
year earlier, in June 2205, the Attorney General amended the regulations which
implement Section 2257. These amendments
prompted not only press attention and abundant board postings from the adult
internet crowd, but actual litigation against the Justice Department in
Given all of the rhetorical fireworks of the past sixteen months, including the predictions from some in the adult world that the sky was falling down, it’s only natural that brick and mortar adult retailers and distributors have wondered whether these changes in the law may affect them. This brief article is directed to the operators of stores who sell and rent adult content over the counter in a retail premises.
The Duty of Retailers and Distributors
The most important legal duty of every adult retailer under 18 United States Code Section 2257 to stay clear of any transactions concerning explicit adult depictions which do not contain a Disclosure Statement as required by that statute. Any transfer of materials which must contain a Disclosure Statement subjects the retailer to as much as five year’s imprisonment if the statement isn’t there. The statute applies to any kind of transfer, including rental as well as sale, and to print material, box covers, and the packaging for novelties as well as the actual video products; The retailer is responsible to assure that the actual DVD or videotape he sells contains the notice when required.
A prudent store owner should first take stock of his inventory and confirm that a Disclosure Statement containing the information required by law is printed on every item containing a covered depiction. He us also responsible to assure that the covered video content he deals in contains the Statement required by law; If the retailer determines it to be impractical to check each and every video for a Disclosure Statement, he must understand that nothing stands between him and the Bureau of Prisons except his trust for the professionalism and legal compliance of the producers and distributors of the products he sells. The distributors are held to precisely the same obligations as the retailers and face the same penalty for violation of the statute and regulations.
The Disclosure Statement, Its Content and Placement
The Disclosure Statement must contain:
* The name of the work, unless it is otherwise “prominently” set out elsewhere in the work;
* The date of its production, manufacture, publication, duplication, reproduction, or reissuance;
* The address at which the records required by law may be inspected;
* If the producer is an organization, the name and title of the natural person employed to maintain the records.
The required statement must be displayed in typeface that is no less than 12-point type or no smaller than the second-largest typeface on the material and in a color that clearly contrasts with the background color of the material. For any electronic or other display of the notice that is limited in time, the notice must be displayed for a sufficient duration and of a sufficient size to be capable of being read by the average viewer. With respect to video, if the title has closing credits, the law mandates the placement of the Disclosure Statement be among those credits; Otherwise it must appear “within one minute from the start of the film or videotape, and before the opening scene.”
It is not the responsibility of the store operator to assure the accuracy of the information contained in the notice; He discharges his responsibility in the law by ascertaining that a notice containing the required information is affixed in the manner also prescribed by the statute and regulations.
Depictions Covered by Section 2257
The scope of
Section 2257 is limited to “actual” depictions of “sexually explicit
conduct”. What “sexually explicit
conduct” means is set out in another statute that provides definitions for the
Because, until recently, the “lewd exhibition” language was used only to define one kind of child pornography, there exists some dangerous case law from that world. In United States v. Knox, 32 F.3d 733 (1994), the Third Circuit held that “lascivious exhibition” included images that depicted the pubic area of girls wearing very tight leotards, panties or bathing suits, shown specifically spreading or extending their legs to make the clothed genital and pubic region entirely visible to viewer and that, to interpret the statue otherwise would be to inappropriately emphasize the word “exhibition” when Congress meant a “lascivious exhibition”. (Page 747). It was not essential, in the view of the Third Circuit, that the contours of the genitals be patently discernable through the covering, at least where the videographer centered his camera’s attentions on the genital area during a dance performance that the court found to be atypical of children’s dance.
It is probably unlikely that the holding in Knox will be expanded to govern the understanding of that expression in regard to Section 2257, because the consequences have the potential to enmesh many women’s fashion magazines, clothing catalogs, and media print ads in the regulatory scheme established in that statute.
Danger Areas for Retailers and Distributors
There exists some possibility that a retailer or distributor may retain in its inventory materials containing depictions now newly covered by the July 2006 amendments to Section 2257 without bearing the mandatory Disclosure Statement; This category would consist of material depicting only the genitals or public area without masturbation or other sexual activity and would, most likely, be found on box covers or the packaging materials for novelties. Covers and packaging material should be closely inspected. Materials produced offshore or by small, independent domestic producers, and old material that is reissued, as well as material in long and constant production deserve special scrutiny as well.
The mere packaging of discrete works, such as magazines or DVDs, into a plastic bag for unit sale does not make the retailer a “producer” with record-keeping obligations under the statute. However, retailers should understand that the creation of any kind of montage incorporating images from discrete works, whether on poster board or in a print advertisement or otherwise, almost certainly renders the merchant a “producer” rather than a “distributor” under the statute, and implicates complicated duties of record-keeping, inspection, and his own duty to create a Disclosure Statement. It is not a recommended practice for those who do not wish to become producers.
Copyright 2006-2011 J. D. Obenberger. All rights reserved.
This article is written to generally inform the public and does not provide legal advice nor does it establish an attorney-client relationship. If you have a legal issue or question, contact a lawyer. If you are arrested, make no statement and contact a lawyer immediately.
Joe Obenberger is a Chicago Loop lawyer concentrating in the law of free expression and liberty under the United States Constitution, and his firm has represented many owners, employees, and customers of adult-oriented businesses, both online and in the real world. He can be reached in the office at 312 558-6420. His e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org.
J. D. Obenberger and Associates are available for consultation, representation, and defense of adult-oriented businesses.